Inspirada en los hechos reales que rodearon la Batalla de Midway, se centra en los marineros y aviadores que defendieron las Islas Midway. [27] Nimitz also hurriedly recalled Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher's task force, including the carrier Yorktown, from the South West Pacific Area. [20]​ Con ese fin dispersó sus buques para que todos, y particularmente sus acorazados, se mantuvieran ocultos de los estadounidenses antes de la batalla. These efforts continued and were expanded throughout the war in both the Pacific and Atlantic theaters. This meant that Midway was outside the effective range of almost all of the American aircraft stationed on the main Hawaiian islands. Saratoga would have been the only American carrier in the Pacific, with no new ones being completed before the end of 1942. A miscommunication caused both of the squadrons to dive at Kaga. [172] The execution of Ensign Wesley Osmus in this manner was apparently ordered by Arashi's captain, Watanabe Yasumasa. [119][nb 4], Hiryū, the sole surviving Japanese aircraft carrier, wasted little time in counterattacking. [100], The Japanese combat air patrol, flying Mitsubishi A6M2 Zeros,[101] made short work of the unescorted, slow, under-armed TBDs. Trivial de preguntas y respuestas sobre la Batalla de Midway. [12], Yamamoto's primary strategic goal was the elimination of America's carrier forces, which he regarded as the principal threat to the overall Pacific campaign. With Jade Willey, John Enick, Judd Nelson, C. Thomas Howell. [175][176], The Battle of Midway has often been called "the turning point of the Pacific". Poor radio communications with the fighter aircraft inhibited effective command and control of the CAP. Esta preocupación se acentuó después del 18 de abril de 1942, cuando la incursión Doolittle bombardeó algunas ciudades japonesas, entre ellas Tokio. As a result, Japanese naval air groups as a whole progressively deteriorated during the war while their American adversaries continued to improve. The D3A was normally referred to by the Japanese as. The ship was remarkably intact for a vessel that had sunk in 1942; much of the original equipment and even the original paint scheme were still visible. The main airfield at Guadalcanal was named after him in August 1942. [146][147], By the time the battle ended, 3,057 Japanese had died. Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat dengan telak meredam serangan Angkatan Laut Kekaisaran Jepang terhadap … [38]​[39]​ La cubierta de vuelo se reparó y secciones enteras de la estructura interna se retiraron y remplazaron. by Mike Phillips. 1. Despite the heavy losses, the Japanese believed that they could scrape together enough aircraft for one more strike against what they believed to be the only remaining American carrier. Admiral Fletcher, obliged to abandon the derelict Yorktown and feeling he could not adequately command from a cruiser, ceded operational command to Spruance. Fighting Three (VF-3) was reconstituted to replace VF-42 with sixteen pilots from VF-42 and eleven pilots from VF-3, with Lieutenant Commander John S. "Jimmy" Thach in command. Nel giugno del 1942, sei mesi dopo la sua vittoria a Pearl Harbor, la marina imperiale giapponese preparò una nuova offensiva per annientare le forze aeree e … A few TBDs managed to get within a few ship-lengths range of their targets before dropping their torpedoes—close enough to be able to strafe the enemy ships and force the Japanese carriers to make sharp evasive maneuvers—but all of their torpedoes either missed or failed to explode. Cronológicamente se libró un mes después de la batalla del Mar de Coral, cinco meses después de la conquista japonesa de la isla Wake y seis meses después del ataque a Pearl Harbor, que supuso el inicio del conflicto en el Pacífico entre japoneses y estadounidenses. [42] In addition, many of the aircraft being used during the June 1942 operations had been operational since late November 1941 and, although they were well-maintained, many were almost worn out and had become increasingly unreliable. "[117] Another bomb exploded underwater very close astern; the resulting geyser bent the flight deck upward "in grotesque configurations" and caused crucial rudder damage. £12.92. Nimitz calculó que las aeronaves de sus tres portaaviones más los estacionados en Midway, le daban una cantidad más o menos igual a la de los cuatro portaaviones de Yamamoto, principalmente porque los grupos aeroembarcados estadounidenses eran más grandes que los japoneses. Spruance once again withdrew to the east to refuel his destroyers and rendezvous with the carrier Saratoga, which was ferrying much-needed replacement aircraft. La flota japonesa no logró localizar a su enemigo en el mar. Torpedo Five (VT-5) was also replaced by Torpedo Three (VT-3). [29]​ Japón tenía un nuevo libro codificador, pero hubo retrasos en su implementación, lo que permitió al equipo de HYPO leer los mensajes de manera anticipada. The Japanese, by contrast, remained mainly unaware of their opponent's true strength and dispositions even after the battle began. 307 Americans had been killed, including Major General Clarence L. Tinker, Commander, 7th Air Force, who personally led a bomber strike from Hawaii against the retreating Japanese forces on 7 June. They also note, however, that doing so would have violated Japanese carrier doctrine, which stressed that carriers and their air groups must train as a single unit. 1615 - Angkatan tentera di bawah Syogun Tokugawa Ieyasu menawan Istana kota Osaka (gambar) di Jepun. Yasumasa died when the destroyer Numakaze sank in December 1943 but had he survived, he would have likely been tried as a war criminal. Hornet's strike, launched late because of a communications error, concentrated on the remaining escort ships, but failed to score any hits. Al principio todos se preguntaban que significaba o qué lugar era «AF», pero más tarde el comandante Joseph Rochefort y su equipo en la estación HYPO pudieron confirmar que se trataba de Midway. Aunque los F2A y SB2U ya estaban obsoletos, en ese momento eran los únicos aviones disponibles para el Cuerpo de Marines. Preso de la indecisión y luego de razonar estrictamente la doctrina de tácticas navales japonesas, Nagumo decidió seguir el manual de forma tranquila y resolvió esperar a que los aviones del primer asalto a la base regresaran a los portaaviones, para luego lanzar con el armamento apropiado la segunda flota aérea de ataque. Operazioni Nel Pacifico: Campagna Di Guadalcanal, Battaglia Delle Midway, Guerra del Pacifico, Battaglia Navale Di Guadalcanal: Fonte Wikipedia: Amazon.com.mx: Libros "[45] Japanese carrier anti-aircraft guns and associated fire control systems had several design and configuration deficiencies which limited their effectiveness. Directed by Roland Emmerich, who produced the film with Harald Kloser, it is written by Wes Tooke. After Midway and the exhausting attrition of the Solomon Islands campaign, Japan's capacity to replace its losses in materiel (particularly aircraft carriers) and men (especially well-trained pilots and maintenance crewmen) rapidly became insufficient to cope with mounting casualties, while the United States' massive industrial and training capabilities made losses far easier to replace. Although their crews reported hitting four ships,[61] none of the bombs actually hit anything and no significant damage was inflicted. [83], The few aircraft on the Japanese flight decks at the time of the attack were either defensive fighters or, in the case of Sōryū, fighters being spotted to augment the combat air patrol. [138] Sighting several ships, neither Murphy nor his executive officer, Edward Spruance (son of Admiral Spruance), could identify them. Air Group Commander C. Wade McClusky, Jr. decided to continue the search, and by good fortune spotted the wake of the Japanese destroyer Arashi, steaming at full speed to rejoin Nagumo's carriers after having unsuccessfully depth-charged U.S. submarine Nautilus, which had unsuccessfully attacked the battleship Kirishima. Tinker Air Force Base, outside Oklahoma City, Oklahoma is named in honor of Major General Clarence L. Tinker, Commander, 7th Air Force, who personally led a bomber strike from Hawaii against the retreating Japanese forces on 7 June. The new carriers being built were redesigned to incorporate only two flight deck elevators and new firefighting equipment. [51]​ Además, muchos aviones que se utilizaron en junio de 1942 estaban operativos desde finales de noviembre de 1941, y aunque estaban bien mantenidos, algunos ya estaban desgastados y su uso era cada vez menos confiable. As Nagumo began to grasp the enormity of what had happened, he appears to have gone into a state of shock. Por ello resultó necesario efectuar un segundo ataque, pues la pista de aterrizaje y despegue del atolón no había sido destruida por la falta de bombas terrestres. La pista de aterrizaje en Midway también servía como punto de escala para los bombarderos que se dirigían a la isla Wake. After expanding the war in the Pacific to include Western outposts, the Japanese Empire had attained its initial strategic goals quickly, taking the Philippines, Malaya, Singapore, and the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia); the latter, with its vital oil resources, was particularly important to Japan. [107] Better discipline and the employment of a greater number of Zeroes for the CAP might have enabled Nagumo to prevent (or at least mitigate) the damage caused by the coming American attacks. [11]​, Yamamoto pensó que atacar Pearl Harbor por segunda vez provocaría que toda la flota estadounidense entrase en combate, incluyendo sus portaviones. [8]​ En su lugar escogió el pequeño atolón de Midway, ubicado en el extremo norte de Hawái, a unos 2100 kilómetros de la isla de Oahu. At the end of the battle, the U.S. lost the carrier Yorktown and a destroyer, Hammann. Ballard's subsequent search for the Japanese carriers was unsuccessful. Dauntless: L'Enfer de Midway: Germany (DVD title) Schlacht um Midway - Entscheidung im Pazifik: Italy: Dauntless - La battaglia di Midway: Norway (DVD title) The Battle of Midway… Fletcher transferred his flag to Saratoga on the afternoon of 8 June and resumed command of the carrier force. [65]​ A las 6:20 los aviones de Nagumo comenzaron a bombardear Midway y causaron grandes daños a las instalaciones militares de la isla. [55], Japan had a new codebook, but its introduction had been delayed, enabling HYPO to read messages for several crucial days; the new code, which took several days to be cracked, came into use on 24 May, but the important breaks had already been made. [189] By 1942 the United States was already three years into a shipbuilding program mandated by the Second Vinson Act of 1938. Without any form of air superiority, the Japanese never again launched a major offensive in the Pacific. Thus, Japan was deprived of any knowledge concerning the movements of the American carriers immediately before the battle. (In contrast, American air squadrons were considered interchangeable between carriers.) [106] The appearance of a third torpedo plane attack from the southeast by VT-3 from Yorktown, led by LCDR Lance Edward Massey at 10:00 very quickly drew the majority of the Japanese CAP to the southeast quadrant of the fleet. Throughout the night of 6 June and into the morning of 7 June, Yorktown remained afloat; but by 05:30 on 7 June, observers noted that her list was rapidly increasing to port. La primera oleada de bombarderos japoneses dañó gravemente al Yorktown con tres impactos de bomba que apagaron su caldera, inmovilizándolo: sin embargo, en aproximadamente una hora, sus dañados equipos de control fueron reparados con tanta eficacia que los bombarderos de la segunda oleada creyeron que se trataba de otro. Ford fue condecorado con un Corazón Púrpura y su trabajo fue ganador del Óscar al mejor documental largo en la 15.ª entrega de los premios de la Academia. Because of strategic disagreements between the Imperial Army (IJA) and Imperial Navy (IJN), and fighting between the Navy's GHQ and Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's Combined Fleet, a follow-up strategy was not formed until April 1942. As soon as Tambor returned to port, Spruance had Murphy relieved of duty and reassigned to a shore station, citing his confusing contact report, poor torpedo shooting during his attack run, and general lack of aggression, especially as compared to Nautilus, the oldest of the 12 boats at Midway and the only one which had successfully placed a torpedo on target (albeit a dud). Gli aviatori americani pilotano un Several minutes later, Best and his two wingmen dove on Akagi. [61]​[62]​ Al contrario de otras versiones históricas, Nagumo también recibió esta información antes de que comenzara la batalla. The Japanese surface forces failed to make contact with the Americans because Spruance had decided to briefly withdraw eastward, and Yamamoto ordered a general withdrawal to the west. [116] VT-3 targeted Hiryū, which was hemmed in by Sōryū, Kaga, and Akagi, but achieved no hits. [42]​ A pesar de los esfuerzos para tener al Saratoga —que había sido reparado en San Diego— listo para el siguiente enfrentamiento, la necesidad de reabastecerlo y reunir suficientes escoltas le impidió llegar a Midway hasta después de la batalla. [140], In reality, the ships sighted by Tambor were the detachment of four cruisers and two destroyers Yamamoto had sent to bombard Midway. The Battle of Midway was a major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II that took place on 4–7 June 1942, six months after Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea. Captain Buckmaster's American flag was still flying. [40] Nonetheless, the First Carrier Strike Force sailed with 248 available aircraft on the four carriers (60 on Akagi, 74 on Kaga (B5N2 squadron oversized), 57 on Hiryū and 57 on Sōryū). Five torpedo bombers and two fighters were shot down in this attack. Pérdidas en hombres: 250 hombres aproximadamente. La batalla de Midway (en japonés ミッドウェー海戦; rōmaji: «Middowē Kaisen») fue un combate aeronaval que se libró entre los días 4 y 7 de junio de 1942 en … Dauntless: The Battle of Midway Pelicula OnLine en Español Latino Subtitulada. [13], This, and other successful hit-and-run raids by American carriers in the South Pacific, showed that they were still a threat, although seemingly reluctant to be drawn into an all-out battle. [69]​[70]​ De acuerdo a las tácticas de batalla de la época, Nagumo guardó la mitad de sus aviones de reserva, dos escuadrones compuestos por torpederos y cazatorpederos. Action-filled war drama focusing on the decisive battle between the Japanese and the Americans at the Midway Islands in 1942. It was initially not known where "AF" was, but Commander Joseph Rochefort and his team at Station HYPO were able to confirm that it was Midway: Captain Wilfred Holmes devised a ruse of telling the base at Midway (by secure undersea cable) to broadcast an uncoded radio message stating that Midway's water purification system had broken down. [112] Most of the Japanese CAP was directing its attention to the torpedo planes of VT-3 and was out of position; meanwhile, armed Japanese strike aircraft filled the hangar decks, fuel hoses snaked across the decks as refueling operations were hastily being completed, and the repeated change of ordnance meant that bombs and torpedoes were stacked around the hangars, rather than stowed safely in the magazines, making the Japanese carriers extraordinarily vulnerable.[113]. By contrast, Yamamoto and Kondo had between them two light carriers, five battleships, four heavy cruisers, and two light cruisers, none of which saw action at Midway. El principal caza transportado era el rápido y altamente maniobrable Mitsubishi A6M «Zero». Inmediatamente después de los ataques, los bombarderos en picado americanos dirigidos por Clarence Wade McClusky y Richard Best se aproximaron a gran altura, sin ser acosados por los cazas Zero que perseguían a los torpederos cercanos al mar, dos escuadrones de bombarderos que atacaron en picado desde el noreste y suroeste. Mike Phillips. Este ataque, aunque militarmente insignificante, fue un duro golpe psicológico para la población japonesa porque demostró la inseguridad a la que estaban expuestas las islas niponas. Rear Admiral Tamon Yamaguchi, together with the ship's captain, Tomeo Kaku, chose to go down with the ship, costing Japan perhaps its best carrier officer. The USAAF contributed a squadron of 17 B-17 Flying Fortresses and four Martin B-26 Marauders equipped with torpedoes: in total 126 aircraft. With further salvage efforts deemed hopeless, the remaining repair crews were evacuated from Yorktown. [96], Waldron's squadron sighted the enemy carriers and began attacking at 09:20, followed at 09:40[97] by VF-6 from Enterprise, whose Wildcat fighter escorts lost contact, ran low on fuel, and had to turn back. Además, desde el ataque del 7 de diciembre de 1941, el poder aéreo estadounidense en el archipiélago de Hawái había aumentado y por ello determinó que atacar directamente Pearl Harbor era demasiado arriesgado. [52]​[Nota 1]​, Además, los portaaviones de Nagumo sufrieron varias deficiencias defensivas que en palabras del historiador Mark Peattie, le hicieron tener una «mandíbula de cristal, podía dar un puñetazo pero no podía recibir uno». [71]​ Media hora después de iniciar este ataque, un avión de reconocimiento de largo alcance enviado tardíamente desde el crucero Tone informó de la presencia de una flota enemiga de tamaño considerable al este. El nuevo código, que tardó varios días en ser descifrado, entró en uso el 24 de mayo, pero para ese entonces los mensajes más importantes ya se habían decodificado. [36] The Marine Corps stationed 19 Douglas SBD Dauntless, seven F4F-3 Wildcats, 17 Vought SB2U Vindicators, and 21 Brewster F2A Buffalos. [132], Finally, fearing a possible night encounter with Japanese surface forces,[132] and believing Yamamoto still intended to invade, based in part on a misleading contact report from the submarine Tambor,[133] Spruance changed course and withdrew to the east, turning back west towards the enemy at midnight. Successes were numerous and significant. [88], In the final analysis, it made no difference; Fletcher's carriers had launched their planes beginning at 07:00 (with Enterprise and Hornet having completed launching by 07:55, but Yorktown not until 09:08), so the aircraft that would deliver the crushing blow were already on their way. He was killed when his aircraft crashed near Midway Island. [191] By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea in June 1944, the Japanese had nearly rebuilt their carrier forces in terms of numbers, but their planes, many of which were obsolete, were largely flown by inexperienced and poorly trained pilots.